Artificial Insemination\Live Stock
Artificial insemination (AI), as practiced by bees and many other flying insects, has played an important role in plant reproduction for a very long time. Use of AI in animals is a human invention and more recent. Undocumented tales exist of Arabs obtaining sperm from mated mares belonging to rival groups and using the sperm to inseminate their own mares. However, our story starts with recorded history, where facts are available to document noteworthy achievements. Consequently, the story is related chronologically.
Much of the development of AI occurred before the 1980s when electronic networks became available, so earlier references are included. The developments that made AI the most important animal biotechnology applied to date include improved methods of male management and semen collection, evaluation, preservation, and insemination. Detection of estrus and control of the estrous cycle in the female also were important. The development of AI is a remarkable story of tireless workers dedicated to the pursuit of knowledge, to the replacement of fiction with facts, and the application thereof. Dairy cattle will be emphasized because AI has had the greatest genetic impact in that species. Other species overviewed include swine, horses, sheep, goats, dogs, rabbits, poultry, and endangered species.
This review can only provide a taste of the important discoveries and developments associated with AI and the people most involved. A more comprehensive overview of the technical aspects of AI are available in many of the books on AI and reproduction (Walton, 1933; Anderson, 1945; Cole and Cupps, 1959; Maule, 1962; Mann, 1964; Milovanov, 1964; Perry, 1968; Salisbury et al., 1978; Watson, 1978; Brackett et al., 1981; Foote, 1981; Herman, 1981; Cupps, 1991). Also, several reviews are available (Nishikawa, 1962, 1964, 1972; Asdell, 1969; Bonadonna, 1975; Bonadonna and Succi, 1976; Foote, 1999).
- Description of bovine reproductive tract
- Description of bovine reproductive cycle
- Methods of estrous synchronization
- Descriptive demonstration on how to pass a rod through a cow’s cervix
- Methods of thawing frozen straws
- Care of liquid nitrogen tanks
- List of equipment needed for AI
- Selection of donors & recipients-genetic & physical aspects
- Reproductive physiology
- Synchronisation of estrus using prostaglandins, progesterones & GnRH
- Superovulation-use of follicle stimulating hormones, mechanisms of follicular maturation, ablation & ovulation
- Heat detection methods
- Breeding strategies and techniques
- Methods of embryo & egg recovery
- Techniques of transferring embryos-palpation of cervix, uterus, ovaries, follicles & corpora lutea
- Preparation of media
- Description, preparation & care of stereozoom microscopes
- Location, manipulation & classifiaction of embryos
- Sanitation of embryos for domestic use & for export
- Techniques for cooling embryos for deep frozen storage using ethylene glycol & glycerol
- Preparation of frozen-thawed embryos for transfer
- Record keeping
Introduction of Livestock
To the smart livestock producer, marketing means more than selling. Marketing is part of the entire process to produce, promote and price a commodity.
The initial step in cattle marketing is selecting the type of stock in demand by the market place. Other essential components of the process include: estimating production costs, calculating cash flow needs, knowing what type and quality of animal is being produced and which buyers will be interested in that type of animal. Final steps in the plan are evaluating the pricing and delivery alternatives, and deciding on which of these to use.
Once the final sale has been made, it’s useful to review the marketing process to determine what worked well and what needs improving.
This module outlines how the marketing process can be organized into seven logical steps. The livestock section of the marketing manual contains many relevant modules that focus on these individual marketing steps. More detailed discussions of these steps to marketing livestock can be found in other modules